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The Job Satisfaction among Female Police Officials in National Highways and Motorway Police: Issues and Opportunities

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Job satisfaction form women especially in unconventional sectors is an important area to explore. The paper tried to find out whether female officials are satisfied with their job or not.  The study employed the mix method approach with open-ended and close-ended questionnaire. A total of 49 participants, including chief patrol officers to junior patrol officers, were selected through systematic random sampling. The findings indicated that overall females are satisfied, therefore very high job retention was observed. Young female officials are more satisfied than others with departmental salary, workplace environment etc. However, regarding Medical and reward policy, they were not satisfied. The married females were facing an imbalance between work and family due to less support from family and workload. In area of foreign training opportunities, experience of discrimination was reported. Study concludes that the situation at family and society level needs to be addressed more.


Key Words

Policing, Female Police Officers, Job Satisfaction, Police Patrol, Discrimination


Generally, police are considered by public as an authoritarian rather than a friendly public-serving institution. -life balance has become a more important issue in the twenty-first century, work and family are like two sides of the coin as both are interconnected and interfere with each other. In the past decade, the police department made many reforms in their way of providing services which has lessen tensions between public and police. Changing the policy environment provides a compatible workplace for women and motivates them to join the police Department as a profession. They recognize their services in every cadre of police departments all over the world.

Historically, In British Colonial rule 1939, the Appointment of women police indicates a small number of inductions as only seven constables and a head constable were recruited. The purpose of this recruitment was to control the female agitators during a farmer’s movement in Punjab. In the year 1952, after partition, Induction of twenty-five women constables, a head constable and an ASI, in the police department proved to be a milestone for women recruitment into police department of Pakistan Later on in 1994 many significant achievements were made regarding women's police contribution. The continuous and gradual changes were made which increased rapid addition to the strength of women officers.

On 26 November 1997 a reformed form of police, a new police force, named as National Highways and Motorway Police with aim of friendly police started its services, which created uniformity among both males and females to approach their rights. This department introduced the good salary packages, promotion opportunities, organizational policies and awareness of the law regarding workplace attracts women to join the police department as a profession. In this context, it is essential to understand that with the passage of time political and social changes have influenced the performance of NHMP officials mainly because of male dominancy in the society of Pakistan women police officials suffer more. However, it may be pointed out that apart from key policy decisions, this change would require a sustainable financial backup in order to ensure quality in policing.

Job satisfaction is defined as the feeling an individual has towards his/her job and the diverse components of the job.  Job satisfaction increases the productivity of employees and enhances their good experience with their respective departments. (Roodin & Mendelson, 2013).

It plays an effective role in decreasing the chances of quitting jobs. The various researches indicate that higher levels of task identity, task significance, skill variety, autonomy, and the Motivating Potential Score of the job are the sources of increased job satisfaction. (Pearson, 2011). The most widely used definition in organizational research is that of Locke (1976), who defines job satisfaction as "a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences" (p. 1304).   Job satisfaction is the extent to which an employee feels self-motivated.


Problem Statement

Women police officers come across a number of obstacles during the course of their duty. They have to play a traditional role as well as a professional role with uniformity. No significant research has been carried out to understand the level of satisfaction among women working in the department of NH and MH in Pakistan. Therefore, this study aims to analyze job satisfaction in female officers of National Highway and Motorway Police by focusing on the factors affecting job satisfaction among female police officials.


Literature Review

Policing is considered to be a tough job as she has to bear stress, anxiety, and resistance of society. Policing is considered to be one of the most Virilities occupations in the world. It is the most gendered base occupation (Ivkovic, 2016). In 2010, the proportion of women in the organized sector of India was 20.41 percent, while the proportion of women in the total police force was only 4.59 percent. Gender discrimination is a major reason for this under-utilization. Gender discrimination doesnot exit in govt organizations but in police force specially in  under developed countries, there is  very  low representation so  may had highly impact on job satisfaction (Randhawa, 2013).

Due to Occupational stress such as operational stressors, organizational stressors and interpersonal stressors affect female police officers a unique blend of causes related to the occupation. Many professional women are exploited economically as low salary packages cause a low level of job satisfaction. In recent research, in Pakistan, Inadequate salary level for police officers causes dissatisfaction on policing as evidenced in frequent illnesses in the police officers (Lateef,2019).

A study in the Southeastern USA inidcates a significient  nagetive relation observed between family size work over load availbilty of leisure time, mental health and low job satisfaction (Pearson, 2011). Results of another study show that most of the police officials were satisfied with their job and the promotion on the basis of merit and education have a positive impact on the performance of police officers and increase motivation and satisfaction level (Bruns, 2005).

The most instrumental elements associated with job satisfaction elevation are a social contribution, pay, adventure/excitement, autonomy, peer respect, and job security. The data also indicated that the female respondents reportedly experienced more stress and were not as satisfied with their jobs as the male officers; however, independent sample t-tests showed that these differences were not statistically significant comparing the workplace experiences of male and female police officers: examining workplace problems, stress, job satisfaction, and consideration of career change. The impact of job satisfaction on male and female are different and indicates female experience more workplace stress then male (Hassell, 2010).

Women feel satisfied with their job as they feel more secure. However, they are less satisfied with the opportunity of advancement and promotion. Family responsibility leads as the reason for contemplating the current job.  Moreover, work place security and household work could affect and increase chances of termination of job (Wilson, 2016). A research result of the banking sector of Rawalpindi Islamabad shows that there is a positive relationship between leadership teamwork and autonomy, however leadership and teamwork influence more than others. Results also depict significant deference of level of job satisfaction between a male and female employee (Hunjra, 2010). A research conducted in the city of Orissa and Delhi of India shows results that out of 200 female police personnel, 105 in a joint family are more satisfied than others. In addition, the personal characteristics of women's behavior positively influence the strong relationship with the experience of the job (Worley, 2011). In order to determine the role of social factors, a study found out a negative relationship between political influence and jobs satisfaction. The respondents of the study believed that they had life threats (Akram, 2018). A survey conducted in Dekina Local Government Area of Kogi State Nigeria found that the there are several factors which cause the low level of job satisfaction including poor work condition inadequate fringes, benefits, work overload, irregular promotion and poor career .not only these factors but also job insecurity and lack of job training play a negative role to the motivation of police personnel (David, 2019). A recent study on the autonomous medical institution of Pakistan was conducted to find out the impact of job satisfaction on performance and found that the work place security ensured by organization, merited promotion and salary would highly affect job level of satisfaction (Khan, 2012).

A thorough Literature review of studies reveals  that job satisfaction have significant  relation  pay promotion working condition relation with superviosry officers and colleague.italso affected by level of education age and  family size. Overall policing is considered gendered base occupation due to low number of representations. Salary and   promotion on merit basis positively influences the level job satisfaction. Age and education have directly relation with high level of job satisfaction. Experience and age would increase high commitment with job. Family size and number of children at home overload work stress which cause low level of job satisfaction. On other hand joint family system decrease stress which influence job satisfaction positively. Many researches show result that female have less chance of advancement which increase more stress for female then male. Relation with leadership and team work has positive influence on job satisfaction. Workplace favoritism abusive language and imbalance in motivation have negative relation with job satisfaction which influences the performance.


Research Methodology

The study employed the mix methid appproach for understadnig and analyzing the data, quantitatvely and qualitatively. The study totally relies upon the primary data as it is aquired through diret observation and interaction and considered as reiable and worthy.

A total of 60 female officers having more than two years of experience in policing were selected from Headquarter zone Motorway. Although the researcher received only 49 complete questionnaires 03 incomplete with below than 50 percent data and 08 respondents did not fill & return the questionnaire back, so data analyses is made only from questionnaires of 49 respondents. tool of data collection was the semi-structured self-administrated questionnaire of open-ended and close-ended questions with a complete guide. The researcher collected data by visiting different offices where female officers are posted. Also, send via email to those respondents who cannot be approached physically by the researcher. Respondents were directed to rate the statements in the questionnaire using a Liker scale ranging from 1(strongly agree) to 4 (strongly disagree).  During the data collection process response rate of female officers are satisfactory but they hesitate to answer the detailed /open-ended questions during the procedure as they thought data used for official purpose but the level of response was increased by assuring them that their information and data will not be misused.


Quantitative and Qualitative Results

The data has been quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed and explained and interpreted below;

Figure 1: Perceptions and Experiences about Working with Male Colleagues


The figure 1 shows that about 26.0% respondents were highly satisfied following them 48.0%, while only 22.8% married women were dissatisfied following them about 3.5% about the comfort level of working with male officials. This clearly indicates that level of satisfaction among females is quite better in the context of the working with male colleagues.

In the response of open-ended questions, respondents share in detail, their problems and satisfaction about the workplace issue number of females prefer office work as they feel safe and comfortable around the office. Few officers also enjoy their duty nature as they are committed to working and they are eligible for every work assignment according to law. One the officer said;

“I want to a different type of duties otherwise I got bored.”


Figure 2: Perceptions and Experiences about the Current Salary Packages


The figure 2 shows that about 38.8% female officers were satisfied with the existing salary packages and 40.2% female officers were highly satisfied with the monthly salary, However, about 16.0% respondents showed their reservations on the salary package following them 5. % respondents strongly objected and criticized the salary package.  

While reacting to open ended questions, majority of the females shared that under the prevailing economic situation of the country, the salary package seems handsome. However, they also added that their duty is challenging so they deserve more and government must need to take good steps in this direction. Some of the respondents were of the view that they have higher education and getting less salary below their expectations. Resultantly, they sometimes think to quit the job and look for new ones because the less salary is not really addressing their economic issues.



Figure 3: Perceptions and Experiences about the harassment at Workplace


The figure 3.3 explains that the work place harassment and the perceptions and experiences of women. About 45.6% respondents were dissatisfied from the environment following the 27.3% who were highly dissatisfied and termed the environment as a pro-harassment.  On the other hand, 12.5% female respondents were satisfied from the environment and 16.7% were highly satisfied

from the working environment and rejected the issue of harassment in working boundaries.

To measure workplace harassment respondent, ask a question about the presence of harassment in their workplace, mostly women shared that mental torture exist regarding duty. Sexual harassment exists in minor cases as many think harassments in the government sector does not exist, everything is on the watch. One of them describes the whole in a single sentence “Harassment does occur under the table, but not openly.” In the workplace, the behavior of the public affects the Officers ‘performance. As has been a male dominating society female feels insecure while going outside. There are few cases reported about the harassment, but many officers did not want to share detail due to reputations. An officer shares, while coming on duty “I harassed by shopkeeper outside my office, but my admin officer resolves the issue and remove his shop”.

Other officers share her experience during patrolling, she said “yes, I do face, an officer on deputation I was driving, he said, I will teach to drive, then he touches my hand with bad attention I was disturbed and I requested admin to change my duty and never again do duty with him. I was so disturbed, but never report this due to my reputation.”


Figure 4: Perceptions and Experiences about the Discrimination against Female Officers


The figure 4 discusses that about 41.7% respondents following them 22.2% female respondents were satisfied system and rejected the perceptions and experiences about the discrimination with females for promotions and fixation of responsibilities. However, 35.6% women shared dissatisfaction following them 7.2% women respondents who were highly dissatisfied from the system and believed that the discrimination very much exists in the system against the women.

While reacting to open ended questions, some respondent shares their experience of discrimination during fixation of duty. Every field is affected by favoritism. Especially officers didn’t enjoy their favorite place of posting as one officer said: “I didn’t enjoy office posting as my batch mates are the admin and staff officer also visit a foreign country for a different course.”

   Maximum officers didn’t face any discrimination as they said there is no gender discrimination, but some fields are more highlighted as in reward policy and fixation of duty responsibility females are neglected. Few officers think that being a male dominating society female are not preferred according to their ability.

One of the officers while sharing her experience resistance from their fellow she said: “where I was appreciated or moved forward, my male colleague felt jealous.” This job is not suitable for females due to male dominance. If anyone got some achievement they said: “she is a female why are you giving space to move”. Another says: I feel most of the time resistance from my fellow especially in selection for foreign country and reward competition.” but some female also has a good experience at their workplace one of them said “I believe that if you are good at your competency then everyone will good with you. “Also, they think that a male colleague is a good mentor.” During sharing her experience one officer says;

“Being a girl and especially being a junior there are serious kind of issues face on a daily basis like male dominancy aggressive behavior    of some colleague most of all when senior gets personal with you” Hence, the mix response was shared by the female officials regarding the discrimination at different levels.



On analytical note, the majority of the young females prefer office work as they feel safe and comfortable around the office also in the field, they face many issues especially public behavior. Disrespect for the public mostly faces by unmarried Female junior ranks and females working in the field. An unmarried female was more satisfied then married with leave policy, especially during pregnancy for married women and these policies have a negative influence on age and experience.  The medical policy was not satisfied for all officials. Most of Females are more satisfied with the promotion policy but have a negative impact on age and experience. Young respondents are more satisfied with the salary package than with those have more experience.  Females working in the office are more satisfied with reward achievement, but overall Discrimination in reward policy and duty fixation also causes dissatisfaction for female officials.

The married female is facing more difficulties to maintain household activities and disrespect from families being working hand than unmarried. Also, female have to manage workplace stress and family also which cause lower satisfaction as from previous studies family and work imbalance has a negative relationship with job satisfaction. Female with family support have high influence as opposed to those female officers who have not enough support from family


Conclusion and Recommendations

The study concludes that most of the officers are satisfied with their job and very little numbers of the females are dissatisfied as they face some problems regarding duty hours, daycare centers for children especially during pregnancy, as there is no adjustment for duty hours. The majority of females prefer office work as they feel safe and comfortable around the office. The issue of harassment and discrimination also exist but not really documented and expressed due to the male dominancy on the higher posts. Therefore, the policies should be reviewed to ensure that there is no discrimination, especially regarding gender in any department of NH & MP. Workplace harassment should be addressed on every channel and dealt according to law with zero tolerance.  Other issues needed to be addressed are like pick and drop for officers, day care for children, opportunities for higher education and scholarship for education, home-based posting, promotion as per quota, housing plan for employees and leave policy, which require keen attention of higher authorities, so that the female police officials would be satisfied and meet their responsibilities enthusiastically and constructively.


Limitation of this study & future Research

Although the findings of the study identified key factors influencing job satisfaction of National highways motorway police female official there are several limitations of this study.

·          Although national highways motorway police have eight zones working all over Pakistan, this study is limited to only three zones in Punjab and KP. So, the generalization of results may vary in other areas, e.g. Baluchistan Sindh due to cultural difference.

·          The sample has been selected by using a technique systematic random sampling with mix-method future research that can be taken with stratified sampling technique or comparative sampling from a different population.

·          A different population sizes can be chosen from both male and female.

·          Other methods, e.g. depth-in-interview could be used to evaluate the exact problem of the officers and the relation of different factor can be studied.















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