• ISSN(P) : 2708-2474
  • ISSN(E) : 2708-2482
  • ISSN(L) : 2708-2474



A Conceptual Analysis of Training and Development Programs: Its Benefits for Employees and Organizations

Cite Us
Views (422)
Downloads (0)


This paper conceptually evaluates and analyzes secondary data about the benefits associated with training and development programs conducted for employees by their organizations. Firstly, the elements and structure of training and development programs are investigated, and the benefits of these programs are presented. For most of the organizations, success or failure highly depends on their employees; therefore, employees are the esteemed assets of organizations, whether the organizations are large or small. In the digital era, new training and development programs have been introduced, which can effectively turn a normal employee into a more professional and skilful. It is of high importance for the organizations to consider T&D programs as it helps both employees and employers in many aspects, and thus the organizations can survive and gain a competitive advantage in the market.


Key Words

Training & Development, Components, Benefits, Employees, Organizations


In the 1950s, a variety of companies took an approach to educate their employees. Likewise, General Electric founded the Crotonville Management Research Center in the 50s (Gerbman 2000). In the early 1960s, McDonald also followed this trend and began training his workers at the University of Hamburg. In the 1970s, professional development and growth programs were primarily aimed at young workers, which showed great potential. The companies were asked to look to the future as well as include their new hires with development, growth and expansion for their different high-ranking roles. The career path model, however, is well established by the conservative dedication that workers possibly give their enterprises (Ghauri 2020). This obligation can be characterized as an emotional relationship that guarantees employers long-term loyalty to the company through the provision of employment protection, incentives for promotion and education (Feldman 2000). The opportunity to obtain swiftly the dedication diminished during the 1980s as organizations sought to push a plain hierarchy with fewer prospects for advancement. As a result, today, a large number of small and large organizations are considering training and development programs for their workforce. The success of each and every company in any sector relies heavily on its workers (Dlamini 2017). However, there can be many other factors which perform significant roles; an organization has to ensure productive, fundamentally competitive and efficient employees within the industry. To retain this important human capital, companies need to be mindful of employees' job satisfaction and retention. It is claimed by some of the employers that employees are most concerned about the financial gain which they expect from their jobs (Keynes 2018). This claim disregards the importance of the obvious advantage of their professions for the majority of employees. As a result, it does not only satisfy and retain employees but has unwanted impacts on organizations. Growing organization need to have a workforce who can adapt rapidly in a continuously evolving industries. Currently, most businesses spend a large amount of money on training and growing workers so that their company remains efficient and successful. Training is becoming increasingly important for both organizations and employees.

There is a significant debate between experts and researchers regarding the successful effects of T&D programs on employee and organizational performance. Some of the researchers are of the view that training opportunities result in high turnover (Mamun 2017), on the other hand, some researchers argue that training is a proven tool that highly supports employee development and retention (Colarelli and Montei 1996). Regardless of any debate, most scholars accept that employee training is a complex HR activity that specifically affects the efficiency of the organizations and employees overall. In addition, companies strive to achieve sustainability in the global economy by differentiating their workers on the basis of knowledge, expertise, and enthusiasm. According to a study published by the US Society for Training and Growth, companies spend over $126 billion annually on T&D programs for their workers (Paradise 2007). Training is an integrated developmental approach that increases individual as well as organizational efficiency (Goldstein &  Ford 2002). Therefore, this study evaluates the published data to analyzes training and development benefits for both employees and employers.


Literature Review

The Need for Training and Development Programs

Worldwide, different organizations facilitate their employees with training and development programs to enhance their skills in addition to their abilities. Training is a vital opportunity to improve all employees' knowledge foundation (Editorial, 2020). The need for training programs in many organizations increases as there is a need to develop, adapt or adjust to changes and solve challenges in order to enhance the performance of the employees and organization (Karim, 2019). In this regard, the main rearrangement was commenced by Sears Credit at the beginning of the 90s that retorted with career development programs. This program was designed for workers to adapt their skills with evolving roles and to ensure that the training programs add value to their organization’s development. Organizations often think that they have not equipped their workers with knowledge and capacity to take advantage of these opportunities (O'Herron and Simonsen 1995). JC Penny, a nationwide wholesale departmental store, established a virtual university to allow staff members to gain skills and expertise as needed for their employment (Garger 1999). Tires Plus, a Minnesota based tire retailer, has set up “Tires Plus University” to boost recruiting, maintain the store's employees and fill the key roles and strengthen the entire development. In Tsubaki, Illinois, a university by the name of “UST University has been established to facilitate and measure training and corporate development programs which address organization and individual needs (Callahan 2000). Different organizations around the world have various strategies and programs to develop their workers' abilities, relying on the same principle.

The essential components of quality training programs are focused on employees' orientation, management and organizational skills. Such ideas form the foundation of every workplace development program (Mel Kleiman 2000). Janet Kottke (1999) identified the need for core competencies in employee development programs, which are the correct framework under which organizations grow their businesses at a corporate level. The basic aims of various employee development programs facilitate the organization's mission and to assist employees in learning the organizational system and culture (Gerbman 2000). Kottke (1999) stated that these priorities help accomplish the strategic objectives of companies by promoting knowledge opportunities and enhancing organizational culture. With more training programs, employees are more likely expected to be productive and successful; therefore, organizations are required to provide them with the relevant training as per their job requirement (Kluve et al, 2019).

Most companies today have developed numerous training and development programs for their employees to facilitate them with the updated soft and hard skills (Porter & Kramer 2019). The Corporate University discovered that approximately 10% of workers have a right to this advantage (Rosenwald 2000). As a matter of fact, many companies implement internally-based training programs that are more effective and inexpensive for their workers (Popa et al, 2017). Learning and development programs are designed in terms of education and have systematic procedures for sharing organization's culture, which takes one job skills into the workplace, to think creatively, develop leadership-skills and solve problems. T&D programs include a set of teaching strategies, initiatives, and learning experiences which confirm that workers strengthen their skills and contribute to their jobs directly or at a later stage (Gerbamn 2000).


Major Components of Training and Development Programs

The overall goal of training and development programs is acquiring knowledge through learning. Learning refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, competencies, specific behaviors or overall attitudes, but specifically, the main focus of T&D is not only employees learning for their own sake (Nafukho et al, 2017). For instance, training and development programs can be initiated to get funds from executives of the organizations, develop credibility of the department or overall organization, gain competitive advantage and so on. Consequently, it positively contributes to productivity, retaining competent employees and develop new products which result in the development of intangible assets for the organization such as the Human Capital (Noe & Kodwani, 2018). There is no standard method to design employee training programs, but particular important methods can be considered. The combination of knowledge, skills, career growth and target setting can be a great program (Gordon & Schultz 2020). This mixture would be a helpful tool for the workers and the company. Organizations currently use IT programs to a wide extent for their learning programs. Technological advancements are evolving quickly, and those businesses that have up-to-date technology of IT can only survive in this complex era of technological advancement. As for a new job, workers need to be qualified so that they can effectively cope with new tasks and compete in the labor market. It should be of great concern for the companies to ensure that employees have knowledge, skills and competencies and that these skills are based on the required level of work. In this way, businesses must ensure that workers are able to learn whenever they need (Garger 1999). The internet and computer-based learning programs are vital in this regard.

O'Herron and Simonsen (1995) stated that the primary problem facing organizations is the procedure, which could lead to certain workers leaving the company and searching around for other positions outside. In fact, workers often feel the pressure that their organization may proceed for right-sizing or down-sizing of staff. Moreover, the objective setting is one of the core elements in career planning and employees’ growth. Therefore, learning programs have been identified as helping employees to improve their performance rather than just to increase their work skills (Gerbman 2000). It is best to enable the workers to better perform their work, and if they need support, companies will provide them with the right resources for doing their job. T&D programs help staff to learn and to make them experts of their jobs (Garger 1999).

A Tires Plus worker mentioned that he learned more about his company rather than just focusing on his job, which helped him find out how he can positively impact its goals (Dobbs, 2000). Individuals should bring about their understanding of their skills and put them together to perform well, not specifically their jobs but also learn more about their organizations. The organization is primarily responsible for providing its employees with opportunities, but individuals must take the initiative to take advantage of these opportunities to improve their future career (Garger 1999). Employee T&D programs not only accomplish their targets but also have positive implications for their workers and their organizations. By implementing this method, companies that use workforce engagement programs receive meaningful outcomes from individuals.


Benefits of Training and Development Programs for Employees

Career Competencies

It is a matter of great importance that employees benefit to a great extent from T&D programs (Rowland & Altarawneh 2017); through this, they are able to learn the soft and technical skills essentials for their jobs. Fresh college graduates often consider jobs with rigorous T&D programs (Feldman 2000). Professionals in the IT sector recognize that expertise is a kind of authority which can be utilized to maintain their existence in the job market (Dillich 2000). It is also expected from the fresh graduates that they are not adequately prepared for the ever-changing business climate (Gerbman 2000). Mostly, young professionals with entrepreneurial aspirations know that they lack expertise and money; therefore, they seek to enter companies offering training programs to prepare them for a better future in addition to their career goals (Feldman 2000). T&D programs help personnel thrive and improve their ability to deal with emerging developments in the future (Kavanagh & Johnson 2017). The demands for blue-collar jobs have been constant for many years now, and multiple businesses have prepared themselves for the challenging new developments in the business sector (Cunniff 2000). This obligation compels employees to determine the capacity of their occupation to maintain their jobs. Despite this condition, many workers rehabilitated their mindset to gain supported work and advancement from the company within their organizations (Feldman 2000). Workers, therefore, tend to make a ten-year strategy for their future and continuously adjust their plans every two years as a result of technological advancement (Wilson 2000). Dobbs (200) discovered that Tires Plus offers T&D programs to encourage a diverse career in the company that requires 80 hours of supervisorvision. According to Fenn (1999) I-Cube, an IT consulting company headquartered in Massachusetts, provides its workers with an employee development plan called I-Altitude and offers fresh workers such kind of training that they can quickly adapt to the organizational mission and vision. In turn, facilitating employees to develop their skills and expertise to meet potential demands contributes to job satisfaction.  


Job Satisfaction

Employees possess a lack of trust in their companies when they believe they don't care for them

 (Garger 1999). Organizations that are investing in their employees build a long-lasting trust, although this investment ultimately advantages them (Wilson 2000). The businesses that offer T&D opportunities to their staff achieve a significant level of employee satisfaction (Wagner 2000). In addition, training strengthens the productivity of the company as workers feel important for the organization (Rosenwald 2000). Employees feel confident and would like to remain on the job with their employers; they also dedicate their efforts and expertise for their enterprises (Logan 2000). Employees with high satisfaction value their work for the company. The best performers normally do not usually quit their jobs for economic gains (Wood & Ogbonnaya 2018). While salaries and benefits play a significant role in recruiting and retaining employees normally; creative and best employees often look for opportunities to learn new skills, perform specific responsibilities, and seek personal and professional growth (Wagner 2000). 


Skills Development

Effects of training on employees' attitude and their work capabilities lead to enhanced organizational productivity, and therefore more significant progress is achieved (Satterfield and Hughes 2007). Arthur et al. (2003) conducted a 165-resource study of 1152 sample size and reported that training usually had a significant impact on work-related results; the effectiveness of the training varies with respect to the procedure of training transmission and the skill being developed. The perks of the training programs often have something to do with workers' professional skills (Lerman 2017). Psychologically stimulating activities enabled trainees to develop knowledge, skills and capabilities they had learned. Training is highly impacting employees’ productivity. Barber (2004), through a qualitative analysis on mechanics in India, originated that on-the-job training was moving towards superior innovation and tacit skills. Professional and technical skills are of high importance for the workers to perform better. In his research, regarding implicit skills, Barber described the profession of a mechanical need to remain successful; he also mentioned that in mechanics a commendable response about hitting the metal at the specific point in a methodical and appropriate manner is the result of training.


Organizational Benefits from Training and Development Program

Market Growth

For any small or large organization, to remain viable and competitive in the market, employee T&D programs are essential. Although investing the money on their workers is costly for the companies, this investment is highly impactful for the companies to retain their position in the industry. The American Society for Training and Development enlisted two important reasons for employes enrichment; first employees recognize the importance of training, second, company CEOs understand how easily learning is transmitted in the existing corporate environment (Fenn, 2000). There is a need for companies to establish and sustain such a training environment for personnel which extends organizational knowledge and competitive capacity (Greengard 200). Employee coaching schemes are originated from a high price, but have a major influence on ROI. General Electric Company and  Microsoft are huge and efficient companies that accept the fact that provision of training is an investment that impacts the organization in present and future (Kleiman 2000).

In his research Wagner (2000) identified that American Society for Training and Development found that a correlation exists between employee training and stock market earnings. This Society   also reveals that companies that invest an average of $1,575 per employee for training have increased 24 per cent in net income and a rise in sales of 218 per cent for each individual, instead of for those who spend less on T&D for employees, spending on employee growth is a practice ideal for both individuals and organisations. In addition, workforce T&D programs not only enhance the competitiveness of companies but also create an impact in their respective markets. Organizations may use T&D programs to help existing staff, prospective workers, and corporate customers  (Petrecca 2000).


Organizational Performance

According to Schuler and MacMillan (1984), training primarily plays an important role in the organizational performance to a greater extent. Research on this subject indicates that expenditures on T&D programs can be validated by the impact they have on the overall improvement of the performance of individuals and organizations (Bartel 2000). In addition, earlier studies suggested that there is a connection between training and the organization's output (Blundell et al, 1999). Bartlett (2001) advises that one of the problems normally to be found should include an accurate estimate of the organization's results. In addition, HRM practices profoundly affect behavior and working attitudes (Allen et al. 2003). To determine the effectiveness of T&D frameworks, it was found that the relationship between T&D programs and organizational performance is managed directly; it was also reported that there is a definite association between training and organization's efficiency  (Bartlett 2001).

The research of Allen et al, (2003) suggests that empowering and retaining employees by their organisations depend primarily on constructive job success and addressing their expectations from the job. It is suggested that the principle of social interaction would be taken from organizations, as they agree to look after their workers' interests. Staff respond to their establishment with idealistic behavioural and attitudinal answers (Settoon et al,. 1996). Training, however, can also be employed to achieve desirable results, which may include enriched organizational turnover (Bartlett 2001). Studies also indicate that workers agree with the T&D facilities their organizations provide, which result in social interaction as well. This consensus on social interaction establishes a long-lasting psychological link between organization and employees (Garrow 2004).


Employee Retention

Several studies reveal that the retention of workers is a complicated task; there is no clear way to keep employees in the company. Several enterprises have reported that one feature of retaining employees is to provide them with the opportunities that improve their personal skills and abilities (Logan 2000). It is also reported that the correlation between T&D programs for employees and retention of employees is highly useful (Rosenwald 2000). Businesses should be mindful of the value of seasoned workers, and businesses have to overcome the challenges to maintain them (Garger 1999). That is, businesses that provide their workers with T&D programs are effective in maintaining them. Sears found that in places where supervisors encourage their workers to improve professionally, turnover is approximately 40-50 per cent lower than those in which there is no interaction with senior management (Logan 2000). According to Dillich (2000), some managers have found that a supportive environment of training gears towards a higher level of retention.

Moreover, organizations that facilitate their staff with T&D programs are efficacious in employee retention. Efficient training programs may also improve employee satisfaction and retention as it is an institutional cooperative step towards building an atmosphere affecting loyal employees (Chaminade 2007). Studies also propose that companies provide T&D packages classify voluntary tasks, criteria and anticipations in a more reliable manner. "For employee retention, companies must give serious thought to their investment in training and development schemes" (Memon et al, 2016). In his research, Fenn (1999) showed that regular monthly sales at Unitel dropped from 12 to 6 per cent after the opening of Unitel University in the year 1998. Several workplace T&D programs are not specifically connected between the retention of employees and organizational projects (Rosenwald 2000). However, a positive learning culture has been found by some managers to suggest higher rates of retention (Dillich 2000).


Data Methods and Analysis

For this study, a qualitative research design is used, which is compatible with the evolving nature and aspect of the current study. A multi-level study approach is deployed because it supplements a multi-dimensional and complex analysis which allows the generation of a better-grounded and richer observation. Data is collected from secondary sources such as academic articles, news, books, reports and case studies. After collection, they have been evaluated and analyzed according to the research theme of this article.

Fig 1:Methodology of Research

Discussion and Analysis

The findings of this research can be widely used by a number of companies in many aspects. The important view is that businesses ultimately put the highest value on their workers and establish values and beliefs that reveal the employees' greatest commitment—staff desire to feel as their contributions have a major difference to organizational growth.  On the one hand, it is challenging for most of the enterprises to establish corporate-level structures and offer comprehensive employee incentives, on the other hand, it is easy for businesses to help employees meet their career goals and objectives. This will lead to employee retention, and organizations will be able to gain the trust of their employees. Many companies can find that they evolve employees who use their expertise and abilities. In this research, individuals and organizations are assisted significantly to receive the various benefits of the T&D programs.  Such advantages include the variable of productivity, which is directly or indirectly interconnected to organizations' productivity. The benefits include enhancing organizational achievement and additional benefits that are directly or indirectly linked to employee success factor (e.g. productivity, quality and positive output).

Figure 2: Benefits of Training and Development Programs


Suggestions for Future Research

We also define basic guidelines for prospective work in this analysis. First, we suggest that training

 incentives could have a positive impact, such as employee reward, which would subsequently affect corporate performance. Further work is therefore valuable to identify the characteristics that facilitate a successful transition of employment advancement benefits at various rates. In addition, some particular vertical-transfer issues that affect T&D directly at both individual and organizational level. In addition, a few studies have been done from the empirical aspect of this subject matter. Educational matters in the modern world need to be addressed that some of the large organizations ignore. Recently, the trend of online courses is significant for all segments of society, while further research can be conducted regarding the employees and organizations.


Implications for Practice

The training approaches of the mentioned organizations in this study focus on values and success of the organization, such as job development, financial reductions and constraints, extremely dynamic environments and theories motivated by the market. Some of these organizations ignore the developmental aspects of their employees and directly focus on their revenues only while employee training can add value to their revenues directly and indirectly. Thus, it is essential for the organizations to primarily focus on the training and development schemes that will potentially increase their revenue, trust among the employees and many other benefits. T&D programs are productive for both employees and organizations; organizations can highly gain competitive advantage in the market. Moreover, T&D programs in the modern world are not so expensive, and companies can approach for basic programs in the beginning while advanced training can be pursued later once they are successful in retaining their employees. 


This article analyzed the secondary data about the benefits of T&D programs for individuals as well as organizations. It was found that the benefits vary for individuals and organizations, likewise. Few of the cases have been mentioned which specify that organizations with T&D programs are more likely to retain their employees, grow their businesses in the market, and the overall performance of the organization can be improved. Individuals can perform well as they will be highly satisfied with their employers, and they can much confident about their skills and abilities for their careers. Therefore, it is of high importance for the organizations, whether small or large, to consider training and development programs for their employees in order to grow in the market, retain loyal and professional employees and most importantly increase their revenue. Not only this, but they can gain a competitive advantage over their competitors as in this digital era, the competition is high, and the nature of the work is evolving. Thus, it is important to train and develop highly professional and skilled employees to remain sustainable and successful.  



Figure 1
Figure 2

Al Mamun, C. A., % Hasan, M. N. (2017). Factors affecting employee turnover and sound retention strategies in business organization: a conceptual view. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 15(1) 63-71.

Allen, D. G., Shore, L. M., % Griffeth, R. W. (2003). The role of perceived organizational support and supportive human resource practices in the turnover process. Journal of management, 29(1), 99-118.

Arthur Jr, W., Bennett Jr, W., Edens, P. S., % Bell, S. T. (2003). Effectiveness of training in organizations: A meta-analysis of design and evaluation features. Journal of Applied psychology, 88(2), 234.

Barber, J. (2004). Skill upgrading within informal training: lessons from the Indian auto mechanic. International Journal of Training and Development, 8(2), 128-139

Bartel, A. P. (2000). Measuring the employer's return on investments in training: Evidence from the literature. Industrial relations: a journal of economy and society, 39(3), 502-524.

Bartlett, K. R. (2001). The relationship between training and organizational commitment: A study in the health care field. Human resource development quarterly, 12(4), 335-352.

Blundell, R., Dearden, L., Meghir, C., % Sianesi, B. (1999). Human capital investment: the returns from education and training to the individual, the firm and the economy. Fiscal studies, 20(1), 1-23.

Callahan, B. (2000). Life-long learning pays off. Industrial Distribution, 89(5), 116.

Chaminade, B. (2007). A retention checklist: how do you rate. African Journal of Business Management, 4(10), 49-54.

Colarelli, S. M., % Montei, M. S. (1996). Some contextual influences on training utilization. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 32(3), 306-322.

Cuniff, J. (2000). Lifelong education has become the norm. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel Q, 35.

Dlamini, N. N. N., Garg, A. K., % Muchie, M. (2017). The impact of transformational leadership style on organisational commitment in the hospitality industry. African Journal of Hospitality, 6(3), 1-21.

Dobbs, K. (2000). Tires Plus Takes the Training High Road. Training, 37(4), 56-61.

Editorial. (2020). The Importance of Training and Development in the Workplace. Business Insight Ltd. https://2020projectmanagement.com/resources/project-management-training-and- qualifications/the-importance-of-training-and-development-in-the-workplace

Feldman, D. C. (2000). The Dilbert syndrome: How employee cynicism about ineffective management is changing the nature of careers in organizations. American Behavioral Scientist, 43(8), 1286-1300.

Garger, E. M. (1999). FEATURES-Goodbye Training, Hello Learning-To retain key talent, remain competitive and ensure long-term profitability, organizations are making dramatic changes in the way they develop the. Workforce-Boulder, 35-43.

Garrow, V. (2004). Training and development and the psychological contract. Training Journal, 3(1), 8-10.

Gerbman, R. V. (2000). Corporate universities 101. HR Magazine, 45(2), 101-106.

Ghauri, P., Grønhaug, K., % Strange, R. (2020). Research methods in business studies. Cambridge University Press.

Goldstein, I. L., % Ford, J. K. (2002). Training in Organizations: Needs Assessment. Development, and Evaluation, 4th ed., Wadsworth, Belmont, CA.

Gordon, H. R., % Schultz, D. (2020). The history and growth of career and technical education in America. Waveland press.

Karim, R. Al. (2019). Impact of different training and development programs on employee performance in Bangladesh perspective. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Research, 2(1), 8-14. https://doi.org/10.31580/IJER.V2I1.497

Kavanagh, M. J., % Johnson, R. D. (Eds.). (2017). Human resource information systems: Basics, applications, and future directions. Sage Publications.

Keynes, J. M. (2018). The general theory of employment, interest, and money. Springer.

Kleiman, M. (2000). What happens if you don't train them and they stay?. Occupational Health % Safety, 69(1), 18-18.

Kluve, J., Puerto, S., Robalino, D., Romero, J. M., Rother, F., Stöterau, J., ... % Witte, M. (2019). Do youth employment programs improve labor market outcomes? A quantitative review. World Development, 114, 237-253.

Kottke, J. L. (1999). Corporate universities: Lessons in building a world-class work force (revised). Personnel Psychology, 52(2), 530.

Kumar, D., % Siddika, H. (2017). Benefits Of Training And Development Program on Employees' Performance: A Study with Special Reference to Banking Sector in Bangladesh. International Journal of Research-Granthaalayah, 5(12), 77. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1133603

Lerman, R. I. (2017). Skill Development in Middle-Level Occupations. The Oxford Handbook of Skills and Training.

Logan, J. K. (2000). Retention tangibles and intangibles. Training % Development, 54(4), 48-48.

Memon, M. A., Salleh, R., % Baharom, M. N. R. (2016). The link between training satisfaction, work engagement and turnover intention. European Journal of Training and Development.

Nafukho, F. M., Alfred, M., Chakraborty, M., Johnson, M., % Cherrstrom, C. A. (2017). Predicting workplace transfer of learning. European Journal of training and Development.

Nixon, J. C., % Helms, M. M. (2002). Corporate universities vs higher education institutions. Industrial and commercial training.

Noe, R. A., % Kodwani, A. D. (2018). Employee Training and Development, 7e (7e ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.

O'Herron, P., % Simonsen, P. (1995). Career development gets a charge at Sears Credit. Personnel Journal, 74(5), 103-106.

Paradise, A. (2007). State of the industry: ASTD's annual review of trends in workplace learning and performance. Alexandria, VA: ASTD.

Petrecca, L. (2000). Agencies teach skill building. Advertising Age, 71(19), 12-12.

Popa, S., Soto-Acosta, P., % Martinez-Conesa, I. (2017). Antecedents, moderators, and outcomes of innovation climate and open innovation: An empirical study in SMEs. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 118, 134-142.

Porter, M. E., % Kramer, M. R. (2019). Creating shared value. In Managing sustainable business (pp. 323-346). Springer, Dordrecht.

Rosenwald, M. (2000). Working class: More companies are creating corporate universities to help employees sharpen skills and learn new ones. Boston Globe H, 1, 2000.

Rowland, C. A., Hall, R. D., % Altarawneh, I. (2017). Training and development. EuroMed Journal of Business.

Satterfield, J., Swenson, S., % Rabow, M. (2009). Emotional intelligence in internal medicine residents: educational implications for clinical performance and burnout. Annals of behavioral science and medical education: journal of the Association for the Behavioral Sciences and Medical Education, 14(2), 65.

Schuler, R. S., % MacMillan, I. C. (1984). Gaining competitive advantage through human resource management practices. Human resource management, 23(3), 241-255.

Settoon, R. P., Bennett, N., % Liden, R. C. (1996). Social exchange in organizations: Perceived organizational support, leader-member exchange, and employee reciprocity. Journal of applied psychology, 81(3), 219.

Wagner, S. (2000). Retention: finders, keepers. Training % Development, 54(8), 64-64.

Wilson, C. (2000). More companies recognize the impact of learning centers. St. Louis Post- Dispatch C, 8.

Wood, S., % Ogbonnaya, C. (2018). High-involvement management, economic recession, well-being, and organizational performance. Journal of Management, 44(8), 3070-3095.