• ISSN(P) : 2708-2474
  • ISSN(E) : 2708-2482
  • ISSN(L) : 2708-2474



Impact of Training on Office Staff Performance: Mediating Role of Satisfaction a..

Cite Us
Views (316)
Downloads (0)


The achievements and success of any organization depends on the standard of its human resources. Training programs is a powerful tool between the practices of Human resource management that help to develop skill and knowledge of the staff in an institution. This research study examines that the impact of training on office staff performance on clerical staff performance in a higher education institution in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Moreover, the study also finds whether S and WM mediate the relationship among training and office staff performance. Through the analysis of 108 responses of selected sample of clerical staff; its shows that there is a strong and significant relationship between training and office staff performance. The result of the regression analysis shows that there is a positive impact of training on performance of office staff. The results of the mediation analysis suggest that the training and office staff performance is mediated by both possible mediator’s satisfaction and work motivation. The data were obtained from this research, can be used for Human resource departments to more understand and identify the importance of training practices for the office staff in higher institution. Due to this, it can help the education institutions to enhance their staff performance by improving their job skill and knowledge.


Key Words

Training, Staff, Performance, Work, Institutions



Human resource is seen as an organization's most important asset because the achievements or failure of an organization are greatly supported by the performance of its employees. Human resources are needed in organizations because their skills enable them to play a specific role. Either trained workers are recruited, or they are advanced with training practices in the organization. Every organization has to do with practices that help them in achieving their standards. Various studies have shown that there are significant associations between training practices and various assessments of employee performance (Niazi, 2011). Training is one of the most effective systems for improving employees' performance because it bridges the gap between current performance and the standard preferred performance (Mzary, Rifai, and Momany, 2015; Imran and Tanveer, 2015). Training can be described as a learning program that includes skills development, concept, attitudes, and knowledge to improve employee performance. Employee performance is known as an employee's goal of attaining their targets, while performance is defined as the accomplishment of assigned roles against predetermined or established standards of performance, completeness, expense, and speed (Sultana et al., 2014). Employees are motivated to collaborate in more expressive and effective situations through effective Human Resources Management strategies (Aladwan, Bhanugopan, & Netto, 2015). It is because better employee understanding and responsibility for their jobs would allow the organization to accomplish its goals and improve employee performance.

 Training is an important method for the institution to enhance the performance of all employees to achieve institutional development as well as success. It is an important tool for the institutions and workers of an institution (Elnaga & Imran (2013). Training plays a major role in enhancing performance and, at the same time can help the institutions to remain at the top of the competition by putting them in the best possible position (Alfandi, 2016). Regrettably, institutions are unaware of the importance of training and, as a result, offer less than an optimal amount of it for their workers. They offer a less-than-optimal level of training and they assume that the costs of training will outweigh the advantages of the programs.

As a result, they do not send their staff to training programs. Previous studies have shown a strong association between training and employee performance, as training helps both the employer and the employee by positively affecting employee performance through the improvement of employee competencies and behavior (Elnaga & Imran (2013). 

This proposed research study will be very helpful to the management of both higher and lower educational institutions. They will be capable of conducting training skills enhancing program which gives satisfaction to the office staff that their management is taking care of them and making them happy, but this satisfaction will lead to enhance the performance of the staff.


Study Significance

The higher educational institution in Pakistan plays an important role in the education system of the country as it is one of the largest contributors to the growth of the country's economy and also produces graduates who can fulfill the national, social, and economic needs of the country. Since the selected organization is also a higher education system institutions, the importance of the training skills will be highlighted in this research paper, which will be useful to management and executives. Additionally, also they will be able to manage their training skill-enhancing programs to make them quite efficient in aspects of helping in the improvement of staff efficiency and leads to better performance. Consequently, it will also help universities to develop proper training skill-enhancing programs for their office staff.


Objectives of this Research

Specific Objective of this Research

To identify the impact of Training on speed of task completion

To identify the impact of Training on standard of work

To identify the mediating effect of Satisfaction between Training and Staff performance

To identify the mediating effect of work motivation between Training and Staff performance


Literature Study


Training and skills development program is one of hose HRM functions that includes in improving staff abilities. Some occupations and designations have become redundant and extra in corporations due to modern technology that have taken place. As results, organizations need highly qualified personnel, and workforce must be trained and skilled in order to ensure future employment. Training has been defined in numerous ways by various scholars. According to Hassan et al., (2013), training programs is a planned process and is intended to enhance employees’ work performance. According to Kulkarni (2013), training practices is a type of nerve that assists smooth functioning of jobs, which increases employee’s quality of work life and organizational effectiveness. Training is a vital practice for companies to achieve a competitive advantage in highly competitive market. Training improves the workforce's ability to do their jobs effectively (Kulkarni, 2013). In the era of 1960 to 1969, many scholars have described training as a process of improving work-related skills and knowledge in order for an individual to better perform their current job. For example, Becke (1962) described training as an effort that improves employee productivity (Somasundaram & Egan 2004).



The purpose of motivation is to help individuals change their behaviour. It is the force that allows an individual to act in the direction of a specific goal. According to the previous study Grant (2008) focused on employee motivation, which forced such outcomes as efficiency, performance, and hard work. According to the studies of (Thomas, 2002; Ryan and Deci, 2002) motivated staff are more aligned toward freedom and autonomy, as compared to less motivated staff and they are more self-driven, which leads to better exploitation of developmental opportunities. Similarly, Staff commitment to their work and jobs is often better when they are motivated as compared to unmotivated workers (Gagné et al., 2015). The notion of motivation is more widely discussed in the field of organizational behaviour, which contains a range of motivation-related models and theories. Employee development and growth is positively and significantly focused. According to Maslow, alderfer, Hackman, and Hertzberg; Growth seems to be the most powerful motivator for individuals who want to enhance their employees' potential. It is concluded that there is an unavoidable relationship between employee motivation and work satisfaction, as well as organizational commitment (Chen et al., 2004; Basset and Lloyd, 2005).  Whether public or private, employee motivation is the most significant factor in achieving success in any institutions (Chintallo and Mahadeo, 2013).


When an institution pays attention to its staff, listens their issues and heard their grievances are properly the staff feel satisfied that their voice does matter and institution is there to assist them. So the staff naturally seems to do well and work toward the organization's objectives and in this they give pay back to the institution. Staff performance improves as their feeling of satisfaction increases. Job satisfaction is often a reflection of an employee's satisfaction with his or her overall performance and the belief that he or she is contributing to the organization's success. Staff satisfaction and motivation are evolving in tandem with the changing environment (Uddin et al., 2012). It should be considered from the perspective of the staff as well as institutions point of view that job satisfaction will contribute to enhanced performance because the employee's interest toward in his job will be increased (Gupta, 2014). 


Staff Performance

Institutions have understood that in order to survive in this ever-changing competitive marketplace, they must develop distinctive dynamic characteristics that empower their competitive advantages. Staff performance, whether directly or indirectly, may have an effect on an organization's success or loss because it ultimately reflects the performance of organization. According to Sultana et al., (2012),the accomplishment of set targets as determined against predetermined standard or the planned level of accuracy and completeness”. Staff may be considered productive workers if they complete their tasks to the required standard (Sultana, et al., 2012). According to Brown (2008), performance with someone who accomplishes a particular task, as well as the observation with which he or she ends the task. As Sila (2014), staff performance can be defined as, in term of Measurable benefits of work behavior and the ability, such as the amount of sales and the number of units sold, as well as behavioral dimensions.


Figure 1: This Study Framework


Following are the Proposed Hypothesis for the Current Research

H1: There is a positive and significant relationship between Training and Speed of task completion

H0: There is insignificant relationship between Training and Speed of task completion.

H2: There is a positive and significant relationship between Training and Standard of work.

H0: There is insignificant relationship between Training and Standard of work.

H3: Satisfaction significantly mediates the relationship between Training and office Staff performance.

H0: Satisfaction insignificantly mediates the relationship between Training and office Staff performance.

H4: Motivation significantly mediates the relationship between Training and office Staff performance.

H0: Motivation insignificantly mediates the relationship between Training and office Staff performance.



Population, Sample and Collection

The population of the current research is senior and lower office staff (i.e. office superintendent, assistant, senior clerk, junior clerk, etc.) of the 13 public sector universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. To fulfill the objectives of this research 130 questionnaires have been distributed among the office staff of these 13 universities of the province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa i.e., ten questionnaires at each university campus in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. In response, a total of 108 questionnaires were received. The response rate of the study was 83.0%.



Four variables were used in the research study i.e. Training, Speed of task completion, the standard of work, and satisfaction. Training (T) is used as an independent variable but the speed of task completion (STC) and standard of work (SW) as dependent variables and satisfaction (S) as mediator. To measure training and staff performance with 10 items scale were adopted from the study of (Masood, 2010). Mediator variable (S) was measured through 7 items, a scale developed by (Cook and Hepworth, 1981). Similarly, the mediator WM Was measured through 6 items, a scale developed by Chang and Chen (2008). All the study variables were measured through a 5-point Likert scale. The study scale was divided as 1-represent strongly disagree and 5- strongly agree. 


Measurements and Discussion

Model Table 1. Reliability of the Instruments


Name of variables

Scale Items

Cronbach's Alpha







Speed of task completion



Standard of work








Work Motivation




The instrument's reliability was measured by calculating the Alpha value through SPSS. Cronbach Alpha is a reliability coefficient that shows how often elements in an instrument are positively correlated to one another (Sekaran, 2003).  Sekaran (2003) suggests that when the value of Cronbach Alpha is .7 or above it be considered reliable in the study. As shown in the above model table 1, the Alpha’s value of all variables is greater than .7 which means the instruments in the scale are reliable.


Model Table 2. Instruments Validity, Sample Adequacy



KMO test

BTS test

Independents Variable



Chi-Sq (850.583)


Dependents Variables



Chi-Sq (254.826)




Chi-Sq (289.532)


Mediators Variables





Chi-Sq (169.388)




Chi-Sq (233.363)



The sample for this research is accurately found based on the KMO values of all variables being greater than.50. Likewise, the values of the BTS test for the study variables are positive and significant that rejects the null hypothesis. To confirm the cross-loading issues with the study scale, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was followed. Based on statistical findings, factors values of the all study scales were greater than .60 (from .70-.90). However, all the study variables were retained in the study.


Descriptive Analysis

Model Table 3. Respondents Profile

Study Variables


Frequencies distribution














Above 40





















Employment status








How long have been working in office?




above 20







Total Study Respondents




The above model no 3, depicts that the details of respondents within the sample. Gender wise, majority of the study respondents were male (79.6%) and the age wise, most of the respondents ranged from 36 to 40 years representing (46.3%) of the entire sample. Majority of the study participants possessed Masters level education were 34.3% and more than half of the respondents (75%) were permanent office staff. Based on findings, majority of the participants have 11 to 20 years work experience in office, which is 35.2% of the entire respondents.


Table 4. Regression analysis

Model no


R2 square

Adj. R2

Standard error









The main objective of the regression analysis is to find out which independent variable has the impact on staff performance. Hence, based on the table, the R2 value is most important piece of information. The value of the R2 shown the total percentage of variance described by training and office staff performance. So, the R2 value is .54 which shows that 54% training explain 54 % variance in the Staff performance. Moreover, DW value shown that there is no autocorrelation.


Model Table 5

Und Beta


Training IV


Training IV



























Dependent variable: Speed of task completions


Dependent variable: Standard of work


The above model table 3 shows the coefficient of independent variable Training (T). Based on results, training will give effect on Office staff performance with the value of values of beta in the above table of .73 and .63. The beta values for Training are 73% and 63% indicates how strong the training impact on office staff. The t and p values confirmed that there was a positive and significant impact of the Training on speed of task completion and Standard of work. Thus, H1 and H2 are accepted.


Table 6. Mediation Analysis




Direct Effect

Indirect effect

Total effect

Sobel Test






.698 (P=.000)
















Part 2






.894 (P=.000)









.884 (P=.000)





In the above model table, part 1 shows the mediation of two possible mediators on Training and speed of task completion relationship. Similarly, the part 2 shows the mediation of the two mediators on Training and Stand of work. Direct effect of the all the relationship is positive and significant. Likewise, the values of the z and p of the stated association is significant which shows that the both mediators S and WM partially mediate the association of Training and Office Staff Performance.


Discussion and Conclusion

Past studies contributes a very rich understanding about Training practices (Elnaga & Imran 2013; Hassan et al., 2013; Alfandi, 2016). Both researchers and firm’s managers are searching how to conduct a training and development skill enhancing programs for the existing staff and new hire staff.

This research study was found a statistical positive and significant impact of Training programs on Office staff performance. Moreover, the study also found that both possible mediators Satisfaction and work motivation partially mediate the association of Training programs and office staff performance. One possible justification is that training practices are most important factor for enhancing of office staff performance. The institutions must arrange training skill enhancing programs for the staff and employees to remain in the competitive environment. The data gathered from this research study, can be used for institutions administration to more understand and know the training importance for the staff in institutions. However, regarding this, it can provide help the institutions to enhance their office staff performance by improving their work skill and knowledge on their job.


Limitations and Future Studies

There are few limitations in this research study. One of the limitations, which are unavoidable to this research, is the correctness of the results. The reason is that, because the study scale mostly asked for participants opinions based on their perception on the statement. Secondly, the results are focused on data collect from the educational institutions in a single province of a Pakistan, i.e., Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and exclude others staff, working in institutions in the others province. Third, this study used a few variables and their association with training, staff performance, satisfaction, work motivation and flop to reflect others personal and institutional variables like social culture, rewards system, job performance, effeteness, and efficiencies that may also affect the training programs. In last, this study select only office staff from educational institutions ignores other forms of institutions.  Future researchers may conduct a study a similar nature by selecting a diverse sample size that includes green training and development practices in the companies of manufacturing and servicing providing.


Figure 1

Aladwan, K., Bhanugopan, R., % D'Netto, B. (2015). The effects of human resource management practices on employees' organisational commitment. International journal of organizational Analysis.

Asfaw, A. M., Argaw, M. D., % Bayissa, L. (2015). The impact of training and development on employee performance and effectiveness: A case study of District Five Administration Office, Bole Sub-City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 3(04), 188.

Cook, A., Cook, J. D., Hepworth, S. J., Wall, T. D., % Warr, P. B. (1981). The experience of work: A compendium and review of 249 measures and their use. London; New York: Academic Press.

Imran, M. and A. Tanveer, 2015. Impact of Training % Development on Employees' Performance in Banks

Imran, M., % Tanveer, A. (2015). Impact of training % development on employees' performance in banks of pakistan. European journal of training and development studies, 3(1), 22-44.

Masood, T. (2010). Impact of human resource management (HRM) practices on organizational performance: a mediating role of employee performance. Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Department of Management Sciences, Islamabad.

Menon, M. E. (2013). Productivity Gains from Training: The Views of Employers and Stakeholders. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 1(1), 118-128

Ndunguru, S. (2015). The Impact of on the Job Training on Employee's Performance: The case of Secondary School Teachers in Songea Municipality (Doctoral dissertation, The Open University Of Tanzania).

Niazi, B. R. A. S. (2011). Training and development strategy and its role in organizational performance. Journal of public Administration and Governance, 1(2), 42-57. of Pakistan, 3(1): 22-44. http://www.dx.doi.org/10.5296/jpaq.v1i2.862

Sultana, A., Irum, S., Ahmed, K., % Mehmood, N. (2012). Impact of training on employee performance: A study of telecommunication sector in Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of contemporary research in business, 4(6), 646-661.

Swanson, R. A. (1996). Training for performance system. St. Paul: Swanson % Associates, Inc

Vagias, W. M. (2006). Likert-type scale response anchors. clemson international institute for tourism. % Research Development, Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, Clemson University, 4-5.

Grant, A. M. (2008). Does intrinsic motivation fuel the prosocial fire? Motivational synergy in predicting persistence, performance, and productivity. Journal of applied psychology, 93(1), 48.

Mack, D. A., Johnson, C. D., Green, T. D., Parisi, A. G., % Thomas, K. M. (2002). Motivation to Control Prejudice as a Mediator of Identity and Affirmative Action Attitudes 1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(5), 934-964.

Williams, G. G., Gagné, M., Ryan, R. M., % Deci, E. L. (2002). Facilitating autonomous motivation for smoking cessation. Health psychology, 21(1), 40.

Gagné, M., Forest, J., Vansteenkiste, M., Crevier-Braud, L., Van den Broeck, A., Aspeli, A. K., ... % Westbye, C. (2015). The Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale: Validation evidence in seven languages and nine countries. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 24(2), 178-196.

Chen, T. Y., Chang, P. L., % Yeh, C. W. (2004). A study of career needs, career development programs, job satisfaction and the turnover intentions of R%D personnel. Career development international.

Basset, J. N., % Lloyd, G. C. (2005). Does Hertzbergs Motivational Theory have Staying power. Journal of Management Development, 27(3), 365-385